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tv   Global 3000  PBS  August 6, 2016 12:30am-1:01am PDT

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>> this week "global 3000" heads to nepal where landslides pose a threat to the locals. they are placing their hope in a robust kind of grass. when will it finally rain again in? in south sudan a lack of water is making life very difficult for cattle breeders. we find out how they're coping. but first we go to the u.s. where mexican families divided by law are able to see each other again through a high-security fence. the border dividing the u.s.a. and mexico is over 3,100 kilometers long and one of the most heavily guarded in the world. there are border posts,
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patrols, and fences, and should presidential candidate donald trump get his way, there will soon be a wall, too. over the past year some 330,000 mexicans have emigrated to the u.s. mexico has one of the highest numbers of displaced persons worldwide. since 1965, a total of 16 million mexicans have sought their fortunes north of the border. and yet, according to estimates, only around half of the mexican workers living in the u.s. are there legally. deportations are becoming more frequent. >> it is a remote and barely accessible region of the u.s. southwest. yuridia together with her daughter sharlene. yuridia's parents smuggled her over the border as a baby. now she and her daughter sharlene have come here for oo very special reason.
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>> i came to see my dad. yeah. i haven't seen him for seven years. >> how does it make you feel? >> really excited. now i really am. i'm actually going. yeah. >> why is he on the other side of the border? >> he got deported. >> now 21, yuridia shows us a photograph of happier times. she wants to introduce her father to his granddaughter. 4-year-old sharlene tells us she recently drew a picture of she and her grandpa together with a heart and a flower. they sent it to him in tijuana. it's a 40-minute walk to the border. >> there are so many things running through my mind. so much i want to ask him and tell him. but, i don't know, one thing i really do want to tell him is how much i love him.
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it's not the same thing to say it on the phone. having him right there actually telling him. >> every saturday at 10:00 a.m., people come to friendship park, located in the no-man's land separating the united states and mexico. here to meet with friends and relatives, separated by the border. finger tips take the place of an embrace. many of theme are in legal limbo and don't have the documents to travel freely back and forth. some are in the u.s. illegally and some are tolerated. it's also illegal to exchange packages or belongings through the fence. but in this case, a piece of cloth sealed with a kiss for grandad is passed.
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moments of joy and sharing. guadalupe and juana haven't seen their father for eight years. >> we understand. we understand why everything is going on but it's just not fair for some families. that's how i see it. >> what is not fair? >> i just feel like us for an example, we study and we work. we don't have a criminal record or anything. we should have the right, well not the right, but we should be able to -- not just like this. i think we could do better. >> now yuridia and sharlene have arrived. they are allowed through, no questions asked. no one needs documents in this park. grandpa fernando received
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sharlene's drawing. they're so close, yet so far apart. like all the others, their meeting is separated by a fence. and, still, it's a special moment. >> i can't even hold him or touch him. it's really hard. >> doesn't it feel a little bit like a prison? >> oh, yeah. that's what it feels like. he's in prison. >> the visitors' area is 15 meters wide. maria is on the mexican side talking to her unborn grandchild. she had to watch the marriage of her son and daughter-in-law via skype. the family tries to maintain its ties and fights to obtain a visa for the mother.
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>> i wish i will be with them very soon because they are my family and i'm alone here. i have tried years. >> veterans hold flag ceremonies for the fallen comrades. every year u.s. army veterans are deported to mexico including hector barajas. the paratrooper was allowed to fight for america, though he wasn't a citizen. after an honorable discharge, barajas fell into trouble with the law. he was sentenced to two years in prison and then deported. >> if you commit a crime but it is a double jeopardy to deport the veteran. the only way to return right now is to be in a box. when you return they'll give awe funeral with full military honors and a flag is given to your family and they thank them for your service. from a grateful nation. >> a group prayer that resonates on both sides of the border.
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pastor john fanestil is working with other human rights activists to keep this meeting place open. >> in jesus' name we pray. >> a union representing u.s. border patrol employees has endorsed presumptive republican presidential candidate donald trump. a cornerstone of his campaign is a vow to build an impenetrable wall along the mexican border. >> it is a very effective means of controlling migration in a very specific area but it doesn't really change the larger overall flow of things. so i think it makes some people feel better about the problem because they see a symbol that they think represents some kind of enforcement or control. but it's not part -- it doesn't, yeah, it's not a part of a realistic or meaningful or long-term solution. >> yuridia understands why
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trump's vow to build a wall resonates with so many americans but at the same time does not think it is the answer. >> i understand. some come to sell drugs and that makes us who want to succeed look bad. the u.s. helps other reasons but they can't help us for a better reason. if they want us to stop coming here they should at least try to help us as well. >> time to say good-bye. the friendship park closes promptly at 2:00 p.m., and friends, families, and loved ones are separated once again. >> now to move on to a story dealing with frontiers on the african continent. a fairly new border separates the republic of sudan and south sudan which declared its independence on july 9, 2011. the people of south sudan were hoping for peace and a better life.
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but now a war is raging between the two major ethnic groups over control of this young country. over 50,000 lives have already been lost to the conflict. in the past few days, the capital juba has been the scene of fierce fighting. the entire region is suffering acute water shortages. the few sources of water along the border to sudan in the north have to provide for everyone. bahr el ghazal is south sudan's border province with sudan. the past years have been exceptionally dry. but people still migrate to the region. they follow a way of life much older than the two sudans. >> here we have no sea. we have no rivers. so my life is all about water. i search for water 24 hours a day. i search everywhere. and if i don't find water, i move on. life is impossible without water.
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>> matar, whose name means rain in arabic is a cattle herder from darfur in sudan. he and his herd have crossed the border into south sudan for the search for water. they share the scarce resource with dinka cattle herders who inhabit these lands. south sudan gained independence from the north in 2011. but instead of freedom and prosperity, a civil war is raging in much of the country. poor rains have added to the problems. this formerly self-sufficient region is acutely threatened by hunger. matar knows he has to rely on the good will of his south sudanese hosts. the wandering cattle herders have an agreement with the dinkas here. whoever has a cow that's thirsty can bring it to the water hole. one after the other.
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matar wants to stay here until the rains return in his home region in sudan. his uncle ahmed keeps an eye on matar, because he knows matar can get rather obsessed with his work. >> he spent the whole night here. he didn't sleep. and if he doesn't sleep, his vision gets affected. for our journey, it is very important to get some rest. look at his eyes. he is always rubbing them. he didn't have any breakfast. >> matar knows that times are tough. there are war and hunger and almost no economic opportunities. his cattle are all he has. >> i chose this way of life because it's what i know. i can't read. i never learned how to use a pen. but here i can manage everything. if i need food, i get it from the cows.
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anything i need, even my shoes, i get it from the cows. >> cattle are a crucial resource for the people of this region. in the midst of chaos, they're a safe investment. keeping the herds healthy is of utmost importance. matar's cavs need to be vaccinated against bovin tuberculosis, anthrax, and other contagious diseases that could wipe out an entire herd. it's grueling work for both men and animals. >> our cows don't behave like dinka cows, which are used to people. ours are shy. they live in areas where they rarely encounter people, and here there are lots of people. >> the international committee of the red cross has helped vaccinate more than a million cows all over south sudan. without the cattle herds, many
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people here couldn't survive. this is the only spot where matar can find water for his herd. he pays for the water and for the vaccinations. it's welcome cash, pumped into the local economy. this exchange between former foes may bring some sort of stability to this troubled region. in the end, cattle herders will always follow the water, whether there is a border or not. >> well, this border issue belongs to the state. we're not afraid of that. we depend on god and walk. we have some debates with people every now and then, but we deal with that amongst ourselves. we always reach a solution in the end. we care only about water and cattle. this is the only life we know.
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>> 16 years of 00's -- 16 years of life. global is traveling around the globe to meet teens who were born in the year 2000. >> i'm totally crazy about dance. >> what moves angel from the seychelles? and what makes buenos aires worth living in for simon? join us in our series "millennium teens." you can find out how on our web page. >> hello. i'm megan perez from perth, western australia, and i'm 15 years old. ♪
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♪ tell me did you sail across the sun did you make it to the mill kay way ♪ >> after school i like listening to music. i like playing guitar and piano. and also just playing songs that i learned from the internet. i have one older sister and one younger sister. my older sister lives in america. and my younger sister, she is still 12, she lives with us at home. my dad is a maritime surveyor. my mom is in the transport and logistics field.
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>> my dad, he surveys ships so he goes to different ports. sometimes he has to go away just to survey ships. i just like being aggressive on the court. i like playing with my friends and using the knee pads. usually i start off as the first setter, which is the person in the middle at the front. since my parents are from the philippines, it's interesting visiting the philippines so often, because going back to the philippines and driving around you see small children in the streets with no clothes and they are dirty and they are bathing in the rain, in the sewers. but they still smile. they still are having a good
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time. and then it just makes me think about how when i go home from school and i have a hot shower it's -- i take it for granted. as we start helping and contributing in small ways eventually it turns out to be bigger. and when more people get involved, i think that's when we can really help other people. ♪ >> and now to our global ideas series. this is where we report about people determined to preserve our planet's biodiversity. this time we're in nepal in a mountainous region battling the
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effects of erosion. when mud slides occur here they frequently bury houses beneath them. what can be done about it? local residents are setting their hopes on a very simple plant -- a kind of grass. our reporter wolf geb hardt went to the region around pokhara to find out more. >> once again, the rain is torrential, bringing back memories of how just a year ago an avalanche of mud and rocks thundered down this very slope. there is not much left of farmer kamal parajuli's grandmother's house. kamal and his son kabin are here to pay their respects to her. she was killed in her sleep by the mud slide. >> she loved me very much. >> he comes with me and he said
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to me, oh, what happened, my dad? we cannot live in this area. we go from here. we leave this area. it is very dangerous. >> but they did stay, like the other residents of the village of simpani. kamal lost his fields. fortunately, he also has a position as a teacher, so he can support his mother and the rest of the family. at the foot of the mountain lies the village of dundekofant. here the damage from the mud slide was especially severe, and nine people lost their lives. a country in the shadow of the himalayas. nepal has been hit by more than 4,000 landslides since the devastating earthquake in april, 2015. the terrain is under stress,
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and increasing numbers of poorly secured roads make the slopes even more vulnerable to erosion. the monsoon has arrived. with its heavy rains, the risk of landslides increases. these school kids are constantly exposed to danger. when a road was built here, an exposed, steep mountain flank remained. for years, mud slides descended on the school yard. it was sheer luck that no one was hurt. agronomist anu adhikari helped banish the threat. she works for the international union for the conservation of nature and she is relying on amriso, a fall tall, fast growing indigenous plant also known as broom grass.
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it helps keep the soil from eroding. >> it holds the soil tightly and also holds the soil and controls the erosion and takes the water speed in the slope area. >> the secret lies in the web like network of roots. >> there are very small roots like a small vein which can penetrate deeply into the soil. that means it has a network like a root network like this and it captures and penetrates the soil. it just holds the soil in the network. >> ever since a strip of amriso was planted in the area between the road and the school yard two years ago, the mud slides have stopped. >> nowadays we feel safe from the flood, which dangerously
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comes down from the side of the road and this part of the hills. >> nepal's second largest city, pokhara, lies about two hours away. the village of sarangkot is near it. for years its residents were prey to landslides. they came down this steep slope, destroyed the fields, and threatened the lower part of the village. here, too, amriso was planted. it's already helped. in addition, a drainage canal was built. it takes up some of the flood water, reduces the force of the torrents, and diverts the water into the fields. the village now has more security. and it also has an additional source of income. amriso's branched flower clusters can be used to make brooms.
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farmer januka baral sells them and has been able to increase her income by 20%. >> if i want to earn extra money, as a farmer i have to work very hard for it but with amriso it's faster and more pleasant. it's quite a good feeling. >> januka baral can use am risso stems for firewood, and its leaves provide good fodder for her live stock. but can broom grass also prevent major landslides? in dundekofant, where nine people died, they've built walls at the foot of the slope, meant to break the force of mud and rock slides before they reach the village.
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anu adhikari and the villagers are now looking for a solution to the middle area of the slope. the damage is still visible here. trees have to be planted and the banks of the river secured. >> to control the landslides there is no magic formula. that means we are not a hundred percent sure to control the landslide. if we plant this it will hold the soil compactly or strongly. that means it can resist a little bit high power of flood. >> higher up on the slope the villagers are now planting amriso. the plant even grows in the eroded soil of the landslide area effectively anchoring it. >> if the soil goes down and there is a landslide we cannot survive. we cannot stay here. amriso protects the soil and then all the members of the family are safe.
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>> once again, torrents are rushing down the mountain. amriso won't offer protection for another year or two. the hope remains that the disaster of 2015 won't be repeatd. >> and that's all from "global 3000." next week, we meet some penguins. in south africa there are now only around 30,000 african penguin pairs living in the wild. why are stocks declining? we find out from local conservationists, who are helping each animal back on its feet. all that and more next week on "global 3000." we love hearing from you so do drop us an e-mail or visit us on facebook. see you next week! [captioning performed by the national captioning institute which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
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steves: from the destruction of world war ii, europe has steadily rebuilt itself into a forward-looking and united continent. with the creation of the european union, economic integration has made another devastating war unthinkable. there has been a massive investment in cutting-edge infrastructure projects. efficient high-speed rail systems tie europe together. superhighways and stunning bridges further enhance the continent-wide transportation system. within cities, sleek subways move millions underground.
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on the streets above, public transit reduces traffic congestion. and nearly every city is creating traffic-free pedestrian zones, making urban life even more people-friendly. as the world grapples with climate change, europe is taking a leading role in developing alternative energy sources. and while still preserving the historic character of its cities, europe has found a way to integrate innovative architecture into the landscape, giving the old world a modern face.
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and the human face of contemporary europe is more diverse and vibrant than ever. even as this continent of 500 million people unites, it's finding ways to allow its rich mix of cultures to celebrate their unique identities. from norway to greece and from portugal to bulgaria, people are proud to preserve their distinct languages, foods, and traditions.
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- [voiceover] this program is made possible in part by historic marion, virginia, home of the wayne henderson school of appalachian arts, celebrating 20 years as a certified virginia main street community. the ellis family foundation, general francis marion hotel. the historic general francis marion hotel, and black rooster restaurant and lounge, providing luxurious accommodations and casual fine dining. the bank of marion, your vision, your community, your bank. emory and henry college, since 1836, solving problems through creative and collaborative results-based education. wbrf, 98.1 fm.

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